[EUMAS10] J-MADeM v1.0: A full-fledge AgentSpeak(L) multimodal social decision library in Jason

by Francisco Grimaldo

Trying to produce social intelligent agents that shows an acceptable behaviour in social envinronments. Applied to BDI agents and using an auction model as decision/making mechanism. It seems interesting for us, as the last step for reaching a concrete agreement after an agreement space has been created using a consensus network. And it is implemented over Jason, so we can integrate it in Mgx agents.

The API seems to extend a Jason agent with predicates that can be introducced in the rules. So if we get a network of jason-mgx agents, we can program agents with decision making procedires that maximizes the benefit of a concrete water rights distribution among participants.

An interesting work that can be useful for us. I'll read the paper later

[AT workshop] Session 4

Reputation and confidence for artificial intelligent entities. A cognitive approach
(Jordi Sabater)

Trust deals with uncertainly and risky situations. A little difference: reputation (very similar) is one of hte mechanism to build trust and it is a social element. How it is used in a computer-based systems? Three layers (approaches): security, institutional and social. Trust and reputation are meaningful in the social approach. If we have a storngly ruled system (institutional approach) we do't need trust, just to follow the rules. Then, a cognitive model of reputation is needed.

A social evaluation is the evaluation by a social entity of some property (mental, physical or social) related with been social. Reputation is then a voice (something that is said) about a social property. But agents do not have to beleave this reputation measures: agents (as people) has no responsibility about spreading social evaluations. When people believes what other people sais, then reputation matches with image (what an agent believes in, consideres as true facts).Reputation means communication and gossiping is the channel used to transmit reputation measures. Images and reputation are based on facts, which have two measures: value and strength -> repage mechanism.

This repage cognitive computational model has to be inserted in an agent. It is important that (i) reputation model can be isolated from other reasoning mechanisms (planners, decision making tools); and (ii) be proactive: do not wait to be asked about reputation, but provide information to the rest of elements. Using a BDI (beliefs, desires and intentions) model with multicotext logics and bridge rules to integrate the context of teh repage mechanism into the context of beliefs, desires and intentions. In the logic, the difference between images and reputation is a ¿reified? difference. An argumentation model is used

Psychopharmacology of agreement
(Adolf Tobeña)

There's lots of corrdination, obbidion, ... but few agreements among humans. ANd the second point of the speech is that humans need drugs. And these facts "llevan" to psychiatric aspects of agreement: why patients are more trending to cooperate/agree after been treated?

Usually, xanthines (caffeine, tobacco) are present during negotiations and bargaining processes. 5 years ago was demostrated that oxitocin increases trust in humas. Furthermore, they observed that participants trend to not change the trusting behaviour even after knowning they had been betrayed (50% trials) and the brain was actually don't responding as been betrayed (e.g. activity in brain areas related with dissgust).

booster drugs for agreements (prosocial, protrust)

  • alcohol, cannabinoids
  • xanthines, nicotine
  • oxytocine, prolactine, NPY
  • estrogens

and antiagreement drugs are (indice paranidogenic, autistic and antisocial behaviors)

  • cocaine, amphetamines
  • LSD, mescaline, psilocibine
  • androgens

But they've observe that testosterone had a possitive effect on human bargaining behavior.... and they did it on women!!!! They shown that one sunlingual dose os testosterone in women cause a substantial increasein fair bargaining, reducing cinflics and increasing efficiency on social interactions. ANd usinga placebo they demonstrate that was a real effect (the believed testosterone group behaves as the group without testosterone. And in men? Other group showed that high levels of testosterone (natural measuring) reject low (unfair) ultimatum game offers: $5/$40. Testosterone has influence in how the rest of the people consider others as leaders. Testosterone redcuces conciuos detrection of signals (face expressions) serving social correlations ->  a high probability of entering into a fight is related with risk/venturesome behavior (you accept more faces as neutral)

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[AT workshop] Session 3

The neural basis of empathy and coordination
(Christian Keysers)

1.- feeling the intentions of others
The neurons involved in a concrete movement (grasping something), surprisingly, respond also when the action is seen (about the 10% of the neurons - mirror neurons-).  Interesting: you can "run simulations" in your mind and the brain behaves as if the real action is being performed. But, what happened if you see a not human (f.i. a robot) doing the same action?. The active areas in the brain of the observer are the same. That is, your brain is "learning" how to do this action.

How about sounds?. The set of neurons dedicated to do, see or hear something is different. In humans, experiments done where about to hear the result of actions performed by the hands or by the mouth (clearly separated in the brain). The correspondent motor areas are not activated, but the area that responds to the stimuli does.

SO, how do we coordinate each other? Because the coordinate system of the other doing an action is not our own coordinate system and the active area in the brain is different. The mirror system transform back and forth between sensory an motor representations, providing the basis for optimal coordination of observed and executed actions

2.- why do we cooperate?
It is related with emotional behavior. Experiments done with pleasant and disgusting smells. Again, the response of the brain is very similar when we feels disgust or when we see someone felling disgusted (by their expression in the face) And impairing simulation with real stimuli can damage the brain (so we cannot properly distinguish the correct emotion/sensation). Emotional simulation and empathy are linked too? It seems to be, and it is not exclusive for disgust. Pain in self and in others overlaps, but disgust and joy overlaps too, so it is difficult to identify the correct emotion. Any way, this facts motivate us to cooperate: we share the same things than others (empathy).

Cooperation and generosity
(Paul van Lange)

Generosity: behaving more cooperatively than the others. Noise refers to unintended errors that affect interaction outcomes. Noise is a matter of fact in social systems and undermines cooperation. But generosity can (or not) cope with noise.

To understand social situations one needs to understand dependence, interests and information availability (al least).imperfect information appears in partner preferences or discrepancies about outcomes and intentions (why he's not responding my emails?).

But the amount of generosity to apply has to be biased. The optimal balance between reciprocity, generosity o stingy has to be found (e.g. tit-for-tat: nice, forgiving, retaliatory and clear.... but it does not repair)

After a lot of results, seems that, under negative noise, generosity (i) build trust, (ii) pair well with reciprocity, and (iii) -I missed this one-. Besides: communication helps (when noise happens, inform the other -say sorry-); individuals copes with noise better than representatives and empathy is effective.

NOTA: ¿que ocurre si se introduce la generosidad como un factor  más en el demostrador mWater a la hora de gestionar las agrupaciones de usuarios autoorganizadas? Parece que puede ser una buena variable para mantener una gestión óptima en el problema de los comunes.

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